Saturday, August 22, 2009

Urea Synthesis and Clearing: Role of Liver and Kidneys

The proteins we eat contain about 20% nitrogen. A person consuming around 100g proteins daily will excrete about 17g of nitrogen daily in the form of urea. In man and other vertebrate animals the major excretory product of protein metabolism is urea, and they are classified as ureotelic animals. Birds and reptiles excrete the waste nitrogen in the form of relatively insoluble uric acid as the end product of nitrogen metabolism and are called uricotelic animals. Urea is synthesized in liver and is released into the blood and cleared by kidneys in the urine.
Urea synthesis in the liver involves five enzymes: (1) Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 2) Ornithine carbamoyl transferase (3) Argininosuccinate synthetase (4) Argininosuccinate lyase and (5) Arginase. Deficiency in any of these enzymes may lead to metabolic disorder. The sole function of urea cycle is to convert the ammonia to non-toxic compound urea. All metabolic disorders of urea synthesis cause ammonia intoxication. Catabolism of amino acids in the most of cells produces ammonia. Considerable quantity of ammonia is produced by intestinal bacteria from the dietary proteins and from the urea present in cellular fluids secreted into the gastrointestinal tract. The ammonia produced in the intestine is absorbed into the portal venous blood and is promptly removed by the liver, where urea is synthesized from the ammonia. At first step, carbamoyl phosphate is produced by condensation of one molecule each of ammonia, carbon dioxide and phosphate, under the action of intramitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS-1) in the presence of Mg++ and N-acetyl glutamate. Now citrulline is formed from the carbamoyl phosphate by union of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine under the action of another intramitochondrial enzyme called ornithine carbamoyl transferase. The rest of the steps in the urea synthesis take place in cytosol. Citrulline diffuses out from the mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol, where it is linked with aspartate to form argininosuccinate under the action of enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase in the presence of Mg++ ions and ATP. There after the cleavage of argininosuccinate to arginine and fumarate is catalyzed by argininosuccinate lyase. The final step in the urea synthesis is the hydrolysis of arginine to urea and ornithine. Ornithine from the cytosol enters the mitochondria and is recycled in urea synthesis. Though other body tissues also exhibit the presence of urea synthesis enzymes but the physiologic contribution of extrahepatic urea synthesis is very low. Urea produced by the hepatic cells enters the blood and is excreted in the urine by the kidneys. Low level of blood/plasma urea and respiratory alkalosis are indicative of urea cycle disorders. Free "Human Body Maps"

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